The ancient world had unreasonably accurate knowledge of the size of the earth and its shape: Analysis of ancient monuments reveals an exact estimate for the circumference of the mean Earth, a spherical version of the Earth, were it not deformed by its spinning once a day.



 Figure 1 The Earth as a circular Equator and a spherical Mean Earth, whose half circumference approximates the non-circular distance between north and south poles
The Size of the Earth

Half of this circumference forms a north-south meridian, known to be 12960 miles (of 5000 geographical Greek feet of 1.01376 ft), a number which (in those Greek units) is then 60^5 = 777,600,000 geographical Greek inches. One has to ask: how are such numbers to be found very accurately, within a planet formed accidentally during the early solar system?

In the addendum of his booklet on Jerusalem, John Michell found the walls of the Temple Mount, extended for the rebuilding of the Temple of Solomon, were a scaled down model of the mean-earth Meridian in its length. These walls are still 5068.8 feet long, which is the length of a Greek geographical mile. This unit of measure divides the meridian into 12960 parts, each a geographical Greek mile.

12960 - the Greek miles between poles

This is a harmonic number made up only of harmonic prime number factors; 2, 3 and 5. The mean-earth circumference is therefore twice this, or 25920 Greek miles and therefore equal in year-miles to the ancient duration of the ancient estimate of 25920 years for the Precession of the Equinoxes.

777,600,000 - the geographical inches between the poles

This is Ernest McClain's valuation of biblical god YHWH because the Hebrew letter-number values of can be seen as 6^5 x 10^5, that is, as the fifth powers of 6 and 10, a number thought to have also applied in the pre-Classical Greek world, to Apollo [John Bremer].

Both these harmonic numbers apply to the meridian when seen through the Greek geographical foot, whose root value was the English foot we use today. (This fact, that the whole metrological system had the English foot as its root unit value, was discovered and documented by John Neal in 2000.)

4,320,000 solar years in day-inches around Equator

A similar geodetic fact was noted Joseph Needham (volume 3 of Science and Civilisation in China, volume 3, CUP, 1959) then by John Michell in Ancient Metrology, 1982), that the Equator of the Earth in English feet equals the number of days in the solar year (365.2422) times 360,000 English feet. I re-arranged this in Sacred Number and the Lords of Time, page 10 as :

"If the equator were divided into 4,320,000 parts then each would be 365.2422 inches long, the length of a solar year in day-inch counting. This would make the the equator 4,320,000 solar years long, the number of "years" in the Huindu cosmology of Yugas ('ages of the world') and the duration of one day of Brahma."

This poses the unlikely scenario that harmonic numbers found in ancient texts by number and in buildings as their dimensions measured in ancient units, were referring to the dimensions of the earth as well as to astronomical time: (a) the post-Vedic yugas referencing the length of the Equator and (b) the duration of the Precession of the Equinoxes in the Temple Mount referencing the (mean earth) Meridian.

For this to be the case, there has to have been an accurate model of the Earth's key dimensions, and of the Great Year of precession whilst also; the units of measure, known as ancient metrology, had to have been already founded upon Earth's dimensions. To evaluate this requires the ancient metrology of Neal and Michell (1982, 2000 see Ancient Metrology) and familiarity with ancient textual references and associated musical tuning theory (McClain, 1978).

Model of the Earth

Figure 2 The Ancient Model of the Earth [figure 3.1 of Sacred Number and the Origins of Civilization]

I summarised the ancient model of the size of the Earth (Michell 1982 and Neal 2000) with the above diagram, found in Sacred Number and the Origins of Civilization, 2007. The model hinges on the Mean Earth and the English foot: I noticed its radius as being 7 times 12^6 feet so that its circumference using pi=22/7 is (2.pi.r) 44 x 12^6 feet. The composition of the geographical Greek foot (1.01376 ft) is 3168 / 3125 which is (288 x 11) / 5^5 so that it divides the mean circumference to give 129,600,000 Greek feet which divided by 5000 (a Greek mile) gives 25920 miles as its circumference.

Three values of pi are employed in this model to characterize the shape and key dimensions of the Earth: 22/7 (best) 25/8 (good) 63/20 (not so good). These were used in combination both in the model of the earth and in the microvariations of ancient metrology so that, the metrology is tied to the size and shape of the Earth, as per Chapter 3: The Model of the Earth.


Whilst there always will be a unit of length that divides up a given planetary length harmonically, that unit of length is very unlikely to be a known unit of length unless someone has pre-defined it as a whole unit of length in the past, based upon measuring the size of the Earth. That is, such a unit has to be defined through subdivision of the length it is to divide a whole number of times.

Further to this, for a number of key dimensions to be coherently related to key measures within ancient metrology suggests that the above model of the Earth was built into the metrological system so that the ancient planetary model and ancient metrological toolkit were two facets of a single enterprise.

The simplicity of the model of the Earth was an achievement unparalleled until the last few centuries and then not surpassed in the effectiveness of its single geoid (that is, in the exact shape of the earth's meridian) which was understandable in a late stone age context of 4th millennium megalithic and Egyptian knowhow. The modern system uses arbitrary units of measure and hence cannot see the three types of Pi implicit in the Earth's geoid, in its ideal form.

In the next part of this series, the mean Earth circumference will be divided differently to establish a harmonic model compatible with that modelling the outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus.