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This recipe reconstitutes a form of megalithic observatory that was capable of accurately measuring the rotation of the circumpolar stars. The stars that surround the north pole, but do not ever set at northern latitudes, rotate anticlockwise as the earth perpetually rotates to the east. The net result is that one marker star could be chosen and geometrically aligned to its range of azimuth about north, allowing it to be transposed onto an observatory circle's diameter. As the marker moves upon this diameter, another transposition can take the star marker, at right angles to the diameter, and place the star marker "upon the earth", in its self evident-position above or below the diameter. Through this, the angle of the marker star about the north pole has been reproduced as the angle of the star marker about the centre of the circle(See point 5 and associated diagram below)

1 LongMegSiderealObservatory B

It is a prime requirement of such an observatory that the diameter's length, in the units of length being used, should result in a circle that is naturally divided into a circumference having 365 equal parts. These parts represent the movement of the sun in a single rotation of the earth, so that after one day the next solar day will start after 366 units of rotation. One rotation of the earth, the sidereal day, will take 365 units of the circumference and of earthly rotation.

By having a sidereal observatory, the megalithic astronomer would have access to what our modern observatories need, sidereal time. Modern clocks can provide this but using the circumpolar sky takes one to the "horse's mouth" because the rotation of the earth is the cause of sidereal time. Another important benefit is that, by the orientation of the circumpolar sky, one can know which point on the ecliptic is rising in the east and setting in the west. When the moon rises, one can know where it should be on the ecliptic and if it seems to rise early or late then the moon must be sitting above or below the ecliptic. 

Having established how useful a circumpolar observatory would be, when one actually looks for their possible design then many different types of megalithic monument appear to have been shaped by their ability to function as a circumpolar observatory. Here I look at the first alternative I found (besides Le Menec's western cromlech), and whilst it uses a different marker starthe same diameter is used for the observatory circle. The site found is Long Meg and her DaughtersCumbria, in the northwest of England's lake district. 

The Making of Long Meg's Daughters, 
for Circumpolar Observations of Sidereal Time

2 LongMegSiderealObservatory B1. Create a Circle of 1394 inches radius so that the perimeter will be divisible by 365 (for chronons of earth rotation) and 24 (for utility in expressing The Hours – an ancient concept), in inches. This is 17 megalithic rods of 82 inches, a slightly greater length than 2.5 megalithic yards of 32.625. This makes the circle the same size as Le Menec's Western Cromlech. (The significance of 82 day-inches is that the Moon retuens to the same place on the ecliptic every 82 days - see pdf on Simulators)










3 LongMegSiderealObservatory B2. Define the northern corners of the squarethat contains the 1394 inch circle. These will become two marker stones for alignment to a specific circumpolar star.









4 LongMegSiderealObservatory B3. The observer then travels south from the centre of the circle, establishing a backsight for observing the candidate stars at their maximum elongation in azimuth, either side of north, using the marker stones. Long Meg and her Daughters appears to have chosen Alkaid, eta Ursa Major. This same choice at Locmariaquer, further south, gives a lesser angle around 18 degrees relative to north whilst here Alkaid achieves a higher azimuth of 20.5 degrees and the core geometry will not be based on two triple squares.










5 LongMegSiderealObservatory B4a. The invariant core of a Type B Flattened circle can then be used to construct a stone circle also having orientations to the sun and the moon within its stones. The normal method of construction involves a long rope from the circumference to two points either side of the axis. At the Alkaid angle, two pegs on the east-west diameter force the long ropes to describe arcs of lower radius but guaranteed to meet the arc shown above and the circumference, in a seamless way. The method can adapt to a wide range of circumpolar angles.







6 LongMegSiderealObservatory B4b. In the case of Long Meg, the solar alignments to summer and winter solstice uniquely have, at that latitude, a separation of 90 degrees, a right angle. This makes the Sun shine along the diagonals of a single square.











7 LongMegSiderealObservatory B5. The marker star can now be transcribed onto the 365 unit circle using its alignments during the night, on the northern horizon. The circle on the ground becomes a sidereal clock by night and can be kept running if the sun’s clockwise motion by day is reversed using a shadow stick, a starting marker and a rope to record cumulative motion.















The final design would be called a Type-B Flattened Circle, using Alexander Thom's morphology, but one can see the completely different approach to its construction that arises out of the needs of a circumpolar observatory. The kerb stones of the "circle" are arcs of stones that are largely filling in or merely rounding out the structure as a contained area. The exception is that within these stones some have significant alignments from the centre and possibly the backsight to horizon events, largely of the sun and moon. My final diagram when I did this work is as below:

8 LongMegSiderealObservatory B

The angle of the triple square relative to North is also the angle to Alkaid in two different periods, one corresponding to the dating of Locmariaquer which uses the triple square and one probably corresponding to Long Meg's use of different geometry (due to Long Meg's greater latitude), wrapped in a Type-B stone circle of Her Daughters. This technique would give a date for Long Meg's use of the marker star Alkaid as having started shortly after 3700 BCE.

 9 LongMegSiderealObservatory B

The above chart shows the variations AT CARNAC of the maximum Alkaid azimuth from North. Since Alkaid is 20.5 degrees at Long Meg when seen 18 degrees at Carnac, this diagram indicates a date for Long Meg of around 3700-3550 BCE.

Long Meg and Her Daughter's are said to have been turned to stone 
for dancing on a Sunday.